In spite of the availability of many
new antibiotics, and the progressive development of resistance in bacterial
species, penicillin G (Pen G)
The penicillin used initially was an
amorphous compound containing impurities, which were introduced during the
fermentative process; its
The penicillin nucleus, 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), consists of three components – a thiazolidine ring, the b-lactam ring, and a side chain.
1. Fleming A. "On the antibacterial action of cultures of a penicillium with special reference to their use in the isolation of B. inﬂuenzae". Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 10: 226, (1929).
2. Chain E., Florey H.W., Gardner A.D. et al. "Penicillin as a chemotherapeutic agent". Lancet 2: 226, (1940).
3. Abraham E.P. "Fleming’s discovery". Rev. Infect. Dis. 2: 140, (1980).
4. Hare R. "The Birth of Penicillin and the Disarming of Microbes". London: George Allen and Unwin, (1970).
5. Bickel L. "Rise up to Life. A Biography of Howard Walter Florey who gave Penicillin to the World". London: Angus and Robertson, (1972).
6. Bud R. "Penicillin: Triumph and Tragedy".
Oxford: Oxford University Press, (2007).
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