Antimalarial agents

Aniline dyes become popular when an antimalarial compound was identified: in 1856, during an attempt to synthesize quinine starting from coal tar, William Perkin, an 18 years old student at the Royal College of Chemistry, discovered mauve purple, the first aniline dye.
Bayer attempted to modify the dye and achieve an antimaliarial drug and eventually introduce similar structural modifications on quinine like compounds. This work resulted in the identification of plasmochin (pamaquine), the first synthetic antimalarial drug, and atebrin (later called mepacrine or quinacrine). These compounds eventually led to the synthesis of primaquine and chloroquine, which are still in use today.

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